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#### List of Standards

The list of standards (ASTM, BS and TCVN) which are commonly used in...

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Date Number of days off 2020  New Year's...

#### Standard Penetration Test

Standard penetration test (SPT) is one of the most common in situ testing...

#### Precision or Accuracy ???

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#### Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

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• #### List of Standards

July 18, 2011
• #### Holiday calendar in 2021

October 2, 2011
• #### Standard Penetration Test

December 12, 2011
• #### Precision or Accuracy ???

January 7, 2012
• #### Bulk Density

February 20, 2012
• #### Compaction Test

March 7, 2012
• #### Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

February 27, 2014
• #### Datalogger for Oedometers

July 21, 2015

### Geotechnical Column

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"Symbols and definitions used in geotechnical engineering" is quoted from "Lexicon in 8 languages" (the fifth edition) published in 1981 by International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

5. Practical Problems

a) Earth Pressure

 Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description $$\delta$$ - ° Angle of wall friction Angle of friction between all and adjacent soil $$a, c_a$$ ML-1T-2 kPa Wall adhesion, pile shaft adhesion Adhesion between wall, or pile shaft and adjacent soil $$K_a, K_p$$ - 1 Active and passive earth pressure coeffcients Dimensionless coefficients used in expressions for active and passive earth pressure $$K_o$$ - 1 Coefficient of earth pressure at rest Ratio of lateral to vertical effective principal stress in the case of no lateral strain and a horizontal ground surface

b) Foundations

 Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description $$B$$ L m Breadth of foundation $$L$$ L m Length of foundation $$D$$ L m Depth of foundation beneath ground $$Q$$ MLT-2 kN Applied (axial) load $$q$$ ML-1T-2 kPa Applied (axial) pressure $$q_1$$ ML-1T-2 kPa Limit pressure $$Q_p$$ MLT-2 kN Point resistance force $$q_p$$ ML-1T-2 kPa Point resistance pressure $$Q_s$$ MLT-2 kN Total shaft resistance $$q_s$$ ML-1T-2 kPa Unit shaft resistance $$H$$ MLT-2 kN Lateral force applied to a foundation $$s$$ L m Settlement $$e$$ L m Eccentricity Distance of point of application of force to center line of the base of the foundation $$\delta$$ - ° Inclination of load Angle of load force with perpendicular to base of foundation $$k_s$$ ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Modulus of subgrade reaction Ratio between change of vertical stress on a rigid plate and corresponding change of vertical settlement of the plate $$N_c$$, $$N_q$$, $$N_\gamma$$ - 1 Bearing capacity factors Dimensionless coefficients used in expressions for bearing capacity as a function of $$\sigma$$ and $$\phi$$ $$i_c$$, $$i_q$$, $$i_\gamma$$ - 1 Correction factors for inclination Correction factors for the bearing capacity factors in the case of an inclined load

c) Slopes

 Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description $$H$$ L m Vertical height of slope $$D$$ L m Depth below toe of slope to hard stratum $$\beta$$ - ° Angle of slope to horizontal $$\bar\tau$$ ML-1T-2 kPa Average shear strength mobilized along sliding surface $$R$$ - 1 Residual factor Defined as: $$\large R=\frac{\tau_f-\bar\tau}{\tau_f-\tau_R}$$ $$r_u$$ - 1 Pore pressure ratio Ratio between the in-situ pore pressure and the total overburden pressure: $$\large \frac{u}{\gamma_z}$$