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List of Standards

List of Standards

The list of standards (ASTM, BS and TCVN) which are commonly used in...

Holiday calendar in 2021

Holiday calendar in 2021

Date Number of days off 2020  New Year's...

Standard Penetration Test

Standard Penetration Test

Standard penetration test (SPT) is one of the most common in situ testing...

Precision or Accuracy ???

Precision or Accuracy ???

When working with technical documents, readers are often deal with specific...

Bulk Density

Bulk Density

1. Definition: A bulk density of a soil sample is defined as a mass per...

Compaction Test

Compaction Test

1. Definition: The bulk density or dry density of soils is not a constant...

Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

On February 27, 2014, flatGEO Consulting Co. accessed to a webpage on...

Datalogger for Oedometers

Datalogger for Oedometers

After a four-month-trial period, flatGEO has finished a datalogger system for...

  • List of Standards

    List of Standards

    July 18, 2011
  • Holiday calendar in 2021

    Holiday calendar in 2021

    October 2, 2011
  • Standard Penetration Test

    Standard Penetration Test

    December 12, 2011
  • Precision or Accuracy ???

    Precision or Accuracy ???

    January 7, 2012
  • Bulk Density

    Bulk Density

    February 20, 2012
  • Compaction Test

    Compaction Test

    March 7, 2012
  • Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

    Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

    February 27, 2014
  • Datalogger for Oedometers

    Datalogger for Oedometers

    July 21, 2015
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"Symbols and definitions used in geotechnical engineering" is quoted from "Lexicon in 8 languages" (the fifth edition) published in 1981 by International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

confused (If your web browser does not display properly mathematical formulae, please refer to How to change renderers in MathJax)

5. Practical Problems

a) Earth Pressure

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 \(\delta\)  -  ° Angle of wall friction Angle of friction between all and adjacent soil
 \(a, c_a\)  ML-1T-2  kPa Wall adhesion, pile shaft adhesion Adhesion between wall, or pile shaft and adjacent soil
 \(K_a, K_p\)  -  1 Active and passive earth pressure coeffcients Dimensionless coefficients used in expressions for active and passive earth pressure
 \(K_o\)  -  1 Coefficient of earth pressure at rest Ratio of lateral to vertical effective principal stress in the case of no lateral strain and a horizontal ground surface

 

b) Foundations

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 \(B\)  L  m Breadth of foundation  
 \(L\)  L  m Length of foundation  
 \(D\)  L  m Depth of foundation beneath ground  
 \(Q\)  MLT-2  kN Applied (axial) load  
 \(q\)  ML-1T-2  kPa Applied (axial) pressure  
 \(q_1\)  ML-1T-2  kPa Limit pressure  
 \(Q_p\)  MLT-2  kN Point resistance force  
 \(q_p\)  ML-1T-2  kPa Point resistance pressure  
 \(Q_s\)  MLT-2  kN Total shaft resistance  
 \(q_s\)  ML-1T-2  kPa Unit shaft resistance  
 \(H\)  MLT-2  kN Lateral force applied to a foundation  
 \(s\)  L  m Settlement  
 \(e\)  L  m Eccentricity Distance of point of application of force to center line of the base of the foundation
 \(\delta\)  -  ° Inclination of load Angle of load force with perpendicular to base of foundation
 \(k_s\)  ML-2T-2  kN/m³ Modulus of subgrade reaction Ratio between change of vertical stress on a rigid plate and corresponding change of vertical settlement of the plate
 \(N_c\), \(N_q\), \(N_\gamma\)  -  1 Bearing capacity factors Dimensionless coefficients used in expressions for bearing capacity as a function of \(\sigma\) and \(\phi\)
 \(i_c\), \(i_q\), \(i_\gamma\)  -  1 Correction factors for inclination Correction factors for the bearing capacity factors in the case of an inclined load

 

c) Slopes

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 \(H\)  L  m Vertical height of slope  
 \(D\)  L  m Depth below toe of slope to hard stratum  
 \(\beta\)  -  ° Angle of slope to horizontal  
 \(\bar\tau\)  ML-1T-2  kPa Average shear strength mobilized along sliding surface  
 \(R\)  -  1 Residual factor Defined as: \(\large R=\frac{\tau_f-\bar\tau}{\tau_f-\tau_R}\)
 \(r_u\)  -  1 Pore pressure ratio Ratio between the in-situ pore pressure and the total overburden pressure: \(\large \frac{u}{\gamma_z}\)

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