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List of Standards

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    List of Standards

    July 18, 2011
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    Holiday calendar in 2022

    October 2, 2011
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    Standard Penetration Test

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  • Precision or Accuracy ???

    Precision or Accuracy ???

    January 7, 2012
  • Bulk Density

    Bulk Density

    February 20, 2012
  • Compaction Test

    Compaction Test

    March 7, 2012
  • Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

    Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

    February 27, 2014
  • Datalogger for Oedometers

    Datalogger for Oedometers

    July 21, 2015
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"Symbols and definitions used in geotechnical engineering" is quoted from "Lexicon in 8 languages" (the fifth edition) published in 1981 by International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.

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3. Physical properties of soil

a) Density and Unit Weights

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 \(\rho_s\)  ML-3 kg/m³ Density of solid particles Ratio between mass and volume of solid particles
 \(\gamma_s\)  ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Unit weight of solid particles Ratio between weight and volume of solid particles
 \(\rho_w\)  ML-3 kg/m³ Density of water
 
 \(\gamma_s\)  ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Unit weight of water  
 \(\rho\)  ML-3 kg/m³ Density of soil Ratio between total mass and total volume of soil
 \(\gamma\)  ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Unit weight of soil Ratio between total weight and total volume of soil 
 \(\rho_d\)  ML-3 kg/m³ Density of dry soil Ratio between mass of solid particles and total volume of soil
 \(\gamma_d\)  ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Unit weight of dry soil Ratio between weight of solid particles and total volume of soil
 \(\rho_{sat}\)  ML-3 kg/m³ Density of saturated soil Ratio between total mass and total volume of completely saturated soil 
 \(\gamma_{sat}\)  ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Unit weight of saturated soil Ratio between total weight and total volume of completely saturated soil
 \(\rho^{_{´}}\)  ML-3 kg/m³ Density of submerged soil Difference between density of soil and density of water
 \(\gamma^{_{´}}\)  ML-2T-2 kN/m³ Unit weight of submerged soil Difference between unit weight of soil and unit weight of water 
 e  - 1  Void ratio Ratio between volume of voids and volume of solid particles
 n  - 1, %  Porosity Ratio between volume of voids and total volume of soil
 w  - 1, %  Water content Ratio between weight of pore water and weight of solid particles (expressed in percentage)
 \(S_r\)  - 1, %  Degree of saturation Ratio between volume of pore water and volume of voids

 

b) Consistency

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 \(w_L\)  -  % Liquid limit Water content of a remoulded soil at transition between liquid and plastic states (determined by a standard laboratory test)
 \(w_P\)  -  % Plastic limit Water content of a remoulded soil at transition between plastic and semi-solid states (determined by a standard laboratory test)
 \(w_S\)  -  % Shrinkage limit Maximum water content at which a reduction of water content will not cause a decrease in volume of the soil mass
 \(I_P\)  -  % Plasticity index Difference between liquid and plastic limit
 \(I_L\)  -  1 Liquidity index \(\large I_L=\frac {\left(w-w_p\right)} {I_P}\)
 \(I_C\)  -  1 Consistency index \(\large I_C=\frac {\left(w_L-w\right)} {I_P}\) 
 \(e_{max}\)  -  1 Void ratio in loosest state Maximum void ratio obtainable by a standard laboratory procedure
 \(e_{min}\)  -  1 Void ratio in densest state Minimum void ratio obtainable by a standard laboratory procedure
 \(I_D\)  -  1, % Density index \(\large I_D=\frac {\left(e_{max}-e\right)} {\left(e_{max}-e_{min}\right)}\)

 

c) Grain size

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 D, d  L  mm Grain diameter Grain size as determined by sieve analysis or wet mechanical analysis
 \(D_n,d_n\)  L  mm n percent-diameter Diameter corresponding to n percent by weight of finer particles
 \(C_U\)  -  1 Uniformity coefficient \(\large C_U=\frac {D_{60}} {D_{10}}\)

 

d)  Hydraulic properties

Symbol Dimension Unit Measured quantity Description
 h  L  m

Hydraulic head or potential

Sum of pressure height \(\large\left(u:\gamma_w\right)\) and geometrical height (\(\large z\;\)) above a given reference level
 q  L3T-1  m³/s  Rate of discharge, flow Volume of water seeping through a given area per unit of time
 v  LT-1  m/s  Discharge velocity Rate of discharge per total unit area perpendicular to direction of flow
 i  -  1  Hydraulic gradient Loss of hydraulic head per unit length in direction of flow
 k  LT-1  m/s  Coefficient of permeability
(hydraulic conductivity)
Ratio between discharge velocity and corresponding hydraulic gradient \(\large\left(v:i\right)\)
 j M L-2T-2  kN/m³  Seepage force The force due to flow with which the seeping water acts upon the soil particles in a unit volume of soil
\(\large\left(j=i\cdot\gamma_w\right)\)

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